Francesco Fracanzano (* 1612 in Monopoli; 1656 in Naples) was a Neapolitan painter and is considered an important representative of naturalism in the baroque period of the city. He was born in Apulia, but came to Naples as early as 1622, where, like his brother Cesare, he worked from about 1630 in the workshop of the painter Jusepe de Ribera, also known as Spagnoletto because of his Spanish origin. In 1632 Fracanzano married the sister of the painter Salvator Rosa. Both painters, like Ribera, belong to the Neapolitan school, and Fracanzano's style is very close to that of Ribera, with a close connection to the Master of the Annunciation to the Shepherds. Like the latter, Fracanzanos depicts the real social conditions of the city in a naturalistic and detailed style in addition to religiousness. He often uses a typically dark background and, for example, strong colours for the clothing of his figures. His work expresses his sympathy for the then often harsh fate of the ordinary population.
Fracanzano took part in the Masaniello uprising of the poor population of Naples against the Spanish tax increases in 1647, after the defeat of which he could only be saved from punishment by influential friends. Fracanzano is also sometimes called Ciccio Fracanzano under his nickname or pseudonym.