James Gibbs (* 23 December 1682 in Aberdeen; 5 August 1754 in London) was a Scottish architect.
After a first education in his hometown, he went to Rome to study architecture. Here he met Carlo Fontana's buildings, which had a lasting influence on him.
In 1710 he came to London, where he became a pupil of Christopher Wren. In the following decades he worked as an architect in England and Ireland. He built the church St Mary le Strand. He was also the architect responsible for St. Martin-in-the-Fields in London, which was built between 1722 and 1726 and is considered his main work.
In 1728 he published a treatise on his designs under the title Book of Architecture.
Four years later his work Rules for Drawing the Several Parts of Architecture was published.
Between 1737 and 1749 he designed the Radcliffe Camera in Oxford, a reading room of the Bodleian Library of the University of Oxford. For this he was awarded the honorary title of Master of Arts.
In Cambridge, he was responsible for the construction of the Senate House at the university there. In addition to various buildings, James Gibbs also designed numerous grave monuments. However, there was no evidence to support the assumption that he had provided the model for the White House in Washington, D.C..
James Gibbs is considered one of the most influential baroque architects in England. He died in 1754.